The base form of Thoul nouns is always just the word itself ~ ex, thal = water. This base form is used when the noun is singular and the subject of a sentence.
If the singular noun is the object (ie, is the predicate noun, instead of subject), then add an -a to the noun ~ ex, thala = the water.
The singular possessive form is created by adding -i ~ ex, thali = (the) water’s.
Thoul has a fourth conjugation that English does not, to conjugate the direct object ~ ex, egthal = (to/from/of) the water.
The plural forms go thus:
Subject = -a (thala = waters), object = -ia (thalia = the waters), possessive = -is (thalis = the waters’), dative (direct object) = (egthala = to/from/of the waters).
thal, thala, thali, egthal; thala, thalia, thalis, egthala.
*There are no real exceptions to this noun paradigm*
Adjectives append to the noun they are modifying; the adverbs that modify a single word append similarly; adverbs that modify more than one word stand alone, but are placed beside the words they intend to modify.
All modifiers are given the special affix -ya, which appends to the end of the word being modified (in the case of multi-word modifiers, -ya appends to the modifier itself).
The big dog = kif ligarksya.
“Dog-piling”: In Thoul, if a word is being modified by more than one adjective/adverb these modifiers “dog-pile” onto the word in a chain-like fashion.
The big, old, hairy dog = kif ligiyoliruckearksya.
Note, in the above example, that only the modifier closest to the “dog-piled” word conjugates like a typical modifier (with -ya coming after the word); the modifiers that come before have their -ya appended directly to themselves in the form of -i-.
In the case of stand-alone modifiers…:
We fight as one = ryckis ok eya.
Thoul verbs have two primary paradigms: The regular verb paradigm; the copulative verb paradigm.
The Regular Verbs:
Infinitive… To feed = ioune, feeding (participle) = uneos, feeding (gerund) = uneas, fed (participle) = unees.
Active… (I) feed = une, (I) fed = uneo, (I) will feed = unei, (if I) feed = unea, (if I) fed = uneou, (if I) will feed = uneia, not feed = iune, not fed = iuneo, will not feed = iunei, if not feed = iunea, if not fed = iuneou, if will not feed = iuneia.
Passive… Is fed = unee, was fed = uneu, shall be fed = unea, (if) is fed = uneae, (if) was fed = uneue, (if) shall be fed = uneie, is not fed = iunee, was not fed = iuneu, shall not be fed = iunea, (if) is not fed = iuneae, (if) was not fed = iuneue, (if) shall not be fed = iuneie.
Causative… To be fed = ioegune, be fed = egune, shall be fed = agune, should be fed = ogune, not to be fed = iomegune, not be fed = eghune, shall not be fed = aghune, should not be fed = oghune.
The Copulative (to be) Verbs:
To be = nio, being (partic.) = nos, being (gerund.) = nas, been (partic.) = nes, to not be = mio.
(I am) = -io, (I was) = -oi, (I will be) = -ei, (I were (is)) = -ia, (I were (was)) = -oa, (I would be) = –ea, (I am not) = –mio, (I was not) = -moi, (I will not) = -mei, (I were (is) not) = -mia, (I were (was) not) = -moa, (I would not) = -mea.
Pass.Pres. = -uo, Pass.Past. = -ui, Pass.Fut. = -ue, Pass.Pres.Subj. = -ua, Pass.Past.Subj. = -uu, Pass.Fut.Subj. = -uo, Pass.Pres.Neg. = -muo, Pass.Past.Neg. = -mui, Pass.Fut.Neg. = -mue, Pass.Pres.Subj.Neg. = -mua, Pass.Past.Subj.Neg. = -muu, Pass.Fut.Subj.Neg. = -muo.
*Copulative verbs have no causative forms*
**Complete list of copulative verbs in Thoul: nio = to be, vio = must, lio = shall, klio = can, ionei = will, iovei = to have, iolei = to go, ioklei = to do**
Shall = iolio, (I) shall = -lio, (I) should (past) = -loi, (I) shall be = -lei, (I) should (subj.) = -lia, -loa, -lea. Neg. = -ilio, -iloi, -ilei, -ilia, -iloa, -ilea….
To go = iolei, going (partic.) = leios, going (gerund.) = leias, gone (partic.) = leies.
Active = lei, leio, leie, leia, leiu, leii, ilei, ileio, ileie, ileia, ileiu, ileii.
Passive = leiuo, leiui, leiue, leiua, leiuu, leiuo, leimuo, leimui, leimue, leimua, leimuu, leimuo.
And that wraps up Part 3! This ain’t finished yet… stay tuned!