Tag Archives: grammar

Pathallea: The Basics of Thoul, part 4.

Other, “radical” forms:

Of (to/from) = eg(-)      /comparative adjective/ = -ner-    /superlative…/ = -ser-       /inverted comparative (lesser)/ = -nor-     /superlative… (least)/ = -sor-

However = dedek      Ago = de      Ado = ghe    That = deck     Such = dock

Behold = dack      Lo = duck      Alas = dyck      (a) Lot = mer      Re- = si-

(to) Make = sei      /past/ = hoi      /present/ = hio      /future/ = hei

Rather = gwarr      Rather than = gwarreck      Meanwhile/while = gheck/ghock

Some…:  something = omkiff, somebody = omsharr, sometime = omyarr.

*copula-like normal verbs*

To give = yillei, to take = yellei, to bring = illei, to buy = ellei, to begin = yilklei, to finish = yelklei.

Sentence Formation:

Simple sentence (Indicative form):  I ran home = laeo lik larua, or, laeoes larua.

Complex sentence:  I ran home because of (the) monsterslaeoes larua gegek (kif) rygarkia.

Compound sentence:  I ran home because I was scaredlaeoes larua gegek rygeues.

Compound-complex sentence:  I ran home because I was scared of the monsterslaeoes larua gegek rygeues egrygarkia.

Interrogative (question) form #1:  I did run home. >> Did I run home? = kloilaees larua. >> kloilaeesai larua?

Interrogative form #2 (for interrog./relative particles):  What to do…. >> What to do…? = sar ioklei…. >> sara ioklei?

Imperative forms (commands/interjections):  You there!  Hey!  What?! >> oray lirr!  hay!  sare?!

Linking verbs:  I do go, I can go, I did go, I could go, I don’t go, I can’t go >> kleileies, leiklioes, kleioleies, leikloies, ikleileies, leiiklioes.  I will be going, I would be going, I can be gone, I can’t be gone >> leiosesei, leiosesea, egleiesklioes, eghleiesklioes.

Sample Sentence(s):

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Nees abreykariya freiorya niks dreiorya il freiokiah niks dreiokiaa.  Nekaneesekio pha hydieria niks hykieria niks vaeylia yil eya orraya il phurra egkarnyadra.  (Dallia eya eg kof Mordeanilorrendriya Breykaridreiokiya)

War is peace.  Freedom is slavery.  Ignorance is strength.

Rickea ryckeio.  Froioudra freioudrio.  Kathida gathidio.

**this concludes part 4!**



Pathallea: The Basics of Thoul, part 3.

The Nouns:

The base form of Thoul nouns is always just the word itself ~ ex, thal = water.  This base form is used when the noun is singular and the subject of a sentence.

If the singular noun is the object (ie, is the predicate noun, instead of subject), then add an -a to the noun ~ ex, thala = the water.

The singular possessive form is created by adding -i ~ ex, thali = (the) water’s.

Thoul has a fourth conjugation that English does not, to conjugate the direct object ~ ex, egthal = (to/from/of) the water.

The plural forms go thus:

Subject = -a (thala = waters), object = -ia (thalia = the waters), possessive = -is (thalis = the waters’), dative (direct object) = (egthala = to/from/of the waters).


thal, thala, thali, egthal; thala, thalia, thalis, egthala.

*There are no real exceptions to this noun paradigm*

The Adjectives/Adverbs:

Adjectives append to the noun they are modifying; the adverbs that modify a single word append similarly; adverbs that modify more than one word stand alone, but are placed beside the words they intend to modify.

All modifiers are given the special affix -ya, which appends to the end of the word being modified (in the case of multi-word modifiers, -ya appends to the modifier itself).

The big dog = kif ligarksya.

“Dog-piling”:  In Thoul, if a word is being modified by more than one adjective/adverb these modifiers “dog-pile” onto the word in a chain-like fashion.

The big, old, hairy dog = kif ligiyoliruckearksya.

Note, in the above example, that only the modifier closest to the “dog-piled” word conjugates like a typical modifier (with -ya coming after the word); the modifiers that come before have their -ya appended directly to themselves in the form of -i-.

In the case of stand-alone modifiers…:

We fight as oneryckis ok eya.

The Verbs:

Thoul verbs have two primary paradigms:  The regular verb paradigm; the copulative verb paradigm.

The Regular Verbs:

Infinitive… To feed = ioune, feeding (participle) = uneos, feeding (gerund) = uneas, fed (participle) = unees.

Active… (I) feed = une, (I) fed = uneo, (I) will feed = unei, (if I) feed = unea, (if I) fed = uneou, (if I) will feed = uneia, not feed = iune, not fed = iuneo, will not feed = iunei, if not feed = iunea, if not fed = iuneou, if will not feed = iuneia.

Passive… Is fed = unee, was fed = uneu, shall be fed = unea, (if) is fed = uneae, (if) was fed = uneue, (if) shall be fed = uneie, is not fed = iunee, was not fed = iuneu, shall not be fed = iunea, (if) is not fed = iuneae, (if) was not fed = iuneue, (if) shall not be fed = iuneie.

Causative… To be fed = ioegune, be fed = egune, shall be fed = agune, should be fed = ogune, not to be fed = iomegune, not be fed = eghune, shall not be fed = aghune, should not be fed = oghune.

The Copulative (to be) Verbs:

To be = nio, being (partic.) = nos, being (gerund.) = nas, been (partic.) = nes, to not be = mio.

(I am) = -io, (I was) = -oi, (I will be) = -ei, (I were (is)) = -ia, (I were (was)) = -oa, (I would be) = –ea, (I am not) = –mio, (I was not) = -moi, (I will not) = -mei, (I were (is) not) = -mia, (I were (was) not) = -moa, (I would not) = -mea.

Pass.Pres. = -uo, Pass.Past. = -ui, Pass.Fut. = -ue, Pass.Pres.Subj. = -ua, Pass.Past.Subj. = -uu, Pass.Fut.Subj. = -uo, Pass.Pres.Neg. = -muo, Pass.Past.Neg. = -mui, Pass.Fut.Neg. = -mue, Pass.Pres.Subj.Neg. = -mua, Pass.Past.Subj.Neg. = -muu, Pass.Fut.Subj.Neg. = -muo.

*Copulative verbs have no causative forms*

**Complete list of copulative verbs in Thoul:  nio = to be, vio = must, lio = shall, klio = can, ionei = will, iovei = to have, iolei = to go, ioklei = to do**


Shall = iolio, (I) shall = -lio, (I) should (past) = -loi, (I) shall be = -lei, (I) should (subj.) = -lia, -loa, -lea.  Neg. = -ilio, -iloi, -ilei, -ilia, -iloa, -ilea….


To go = iolei, going (partic.) = leios, going (gerund.) = leias, gone (partic.) = leies.

Active = lei, leio, leie, leia, leiu, leii, ilei, ileio, ileie, ileia, ileiu, ileii.

Passive = leiuo, leiui, leiue, leiua, leiuu, leiuo, leimuo, leimui, leimue, leimua, leimuu, leimuo.

And that wraps up Part 3!  This ain’t finished yet… stay tuned!


Pathallea: The Basics of Thoul, part 2.

Other Pronoun Forms:

Where = larr            There = lirr               Here = lurr

When = yarr            Then = yirr                If = yurr                   Now = yorr

Whence = warr        Thence = wirr           Hence = wurr

Wherefor = sharr     Therefor = shirr        Herefor = shurr       How come = sherr

Which = theks         Whether = thoks

>>”Wherefor” = “Why”; “Herefor” = “How.”


To = yil                     From = yel             Near = yilk            Away = yelk

In = il                        Out = el                  Inside = ilk           Outside = elk

On = ik                     Off = ek                  Upon = ic             Off of = ec

Up = ber                   Down = bor            Over = berk         Under = bork

Before = beri            After = bori             In front = berik     Behind = borik

Within = ilpha           Without = elpha      With = pha

Through = phik           Across = phuk          Along = phak         At = yeck

Beside = thik               Between = thuk       Among = thak        Beyond = yock


And = niks                Or = nuks               Either = uks

Neither = huks          Nor = muks            For = rok             Against = rek

And/or = meks          And not = miks

So = aks                   Yet = eks                But = oks


Because = gegek      For = ge                  Other = ora          Another = orra

Thus = thiks              Rather = thuks       Though = thaks    Than = theck    Same = thack

As = ock                    Like = eck        Unlike = meck           As () as = ok-()-k

All = a          Many = um            Some = om           Few = em            None = im

Always = am         Any = eh        Few = mum          Much = u        Every = mam

More = ner           Most = ser          Ever = ker     Never = iker       Even = kerk

Although = gedeg    Almost = gekeg      Altogether = gedek     Also = gek

Since = phiks         Thorough = phigik      Well = phuk     Again = phis        About = phus

>>The above prepositions, conjunctions, and adverbs are arranged according to word similarities; not so much according to their actual semantic value (although that is still mostly the case).  For example, ‘because’ is not an adverb, but conjugates like one (due to it deriving from ‘of’).


Thoul numbers are easily conjugated, and thus overall more on the boring side of things…

0 = ih                0th = ihkya                   (ihtya)                          11 = eshe

1 = e               1st = ekya                  Once = etya              12 = eshes

2 = es               2nd = eskya                 Twice = estya             13 = esher

3 = er                3rd = erkya                  Thrice = ertya             20 = esesh

4 = em              4th = emkya                 (emtya)                        30 = eresh

5 = ey               5th = eykya                  (eytya)                         100 = ash

6 = eye           6th = eyekya              (eyetya)                     1,000 = ath

7 = eyes           7th = eyeskya              (eyestya)                     1,000,000 = ay

8 = eyer            8th = eyerkya              (eyertya)

9 = eyem           9th = eyemkya             (eyemtya)

10 = esh            10th = eshkya              (eshtya)

Half = ecesa                         Three-quarter = ercema

Third = ecera                        Two-third = escera

Quarter = ecema                  Three-half = ercesa

Fifth = eceya                        Four-third = emcera

Sixth = eceyea

Seventh = eceyesa

Eighth = eceyera

Ninth = eceyema

Tenth = ecesha

AND THAT CONCLUDES PART TWO!  More on Thoul grammar to come, eventually…


Pathallea: the Basics of Thoul.

Thouldaara is the language spoken by the Breykarian humans of Pathallea…

It means, roughly, ‘(it is) spoken (and) written’.  Thoul = ‘to speak (aloud or as words)’; Daar = ‘to write (in a book or on stone)’.

With respect to us here on Earth, ‘Thoul’ is what’s known as a ‘conlang’ — which is short for ‘constructed language’, and is simply a language that has been created by someone out of thin-air, basically.

For example, ‘Klingon’ is a conlang, and so is the Na’vi language of Cameron’s Avatar.

Here are the Thoul basics:


The Thoul consonants are:

/d/  /t/  /th/  /ts/*; th as in thing.

/b/  /p/  /ph/  /f/  /v/; ph as in phantom.

/g, gh/  /k, ck/  /c/  /h/  /ks/; gh as in ghost, ck as in chick, c either as in camp or in cease (depending on nearby vowels).

/gw/ — usually the ‘w’ isn’t pronounced…

/m/  /n/  /ng/  /ny/*

/s, ss/  /z/  /sh/  /ch/*; ch as in chirp.

/r, rr/  /rh, rrh/  /l, ll/  /w/  /y/  /wh/*; rh = rrh is a trill, wh as in what.

‘*’ denotes consonants found only in onomatopoeic words and/or loanwords.

Thoul vowels:

/a/  /e/  /i/  /o/  /u/  /y/*

/ae/  /ai, ay/  /au, aw/

/ei, ey/  /eu, ew/  /ea/

/oa/  /oe/  /ou, ow/  /oy/

/ie, iy/


/aa/  /ee/  /ii/  /oo/  /uu/  /yy/

*’y’ in Thoul is a semi-vowel; ie, it is used, as in English, as a vowel and a consonant.

Pronunciation of vowels is tricky, because they’re as pinned-down as they are in English.  For the most part, vowels are pronounced exactly as they are when they show up in most English words.

‘rr’ is a long-form of ‘r’; same with ‘ll’ for ‘l’, ‘ck’ for ‘k’, and ‘ss’ for ‘s’.

Thoul has VERY FEW ‘silent’ letters…


Thoul has two ‘kinds’ of pronouns — ‘independent’ and ‘suffix’.

Independent (are stand-alone):

I = lik               We = licka             Thou (masc) = or     Thou (fem) = oar           Ye = orra

Me = lika         Us = lickia             Thee (m) = ora         Thee (f) = oara              You = orria

My = liki           Our = licki             Thy (m) = ori             Thy (f) = oari                Your = orri

Mine = likes     Ours = lickes         Thine (m) = ores      Thine (f) = oares          Yours = orres

To me = eglik   To us = eglick       To thee (m) = egor  To thee (f) = egoar       To you = egorr

He = karr                She = darr              It = narr                  They = kiff

Him = karra            Her = darra             It = narra                Them = kiffa

His = karri               Her = darri              Its = narri               Their = kiffi

His = karres           Hers = darres          Its = narres            Theirs = kiffes

To him = egkarr     To her = egdarr      To it = egnarr         To them = egkiff

Who = sarr             Whom = sarra         Whose = sarri

What = sar             What = sara            Whose = sari

That/the = kif       Those = kifa

This = kuf              These = kufa

The (only for names, titles) = kof

Self = sap


Suffix (variants of the Independent forms that attach to the ends of words):

I = -es                  We = -is             Thou (masc) = –or      Thou (fem) = –ar       Ye = –orr

Me = -esa            Us = -isa            Thee (m) = –ora          Thee (f) = –ara         You = –orra

My = -es              Our = -isi            Thy (m) = –ori             Thy (f) = –ari             Your = –orri

Mine = -eses       Ours = -ises       Thine (m) = –ores       Thine (f) = –ares      Yours = –orres

To me = -eges     To us = -egis     To thee (m) = –egor   To thee (f) = –egar   To you = –egorr

He = -ak                She = -ad               It = -an                     They = -ek

Him = -aka            Her = -ada              It = -ana                   Them = -eka

His = -aki               Her = -adi              Its = -ani                   Their = -eki

His = -akes           Hers = -ades          Its = -anes                Theirs = -ekes

To him = -egak     To her = -egad      To it = -egan             To them = -egek

Self = -(s)ap

That’ll be it for now, on Thoul, since this post is long enough already.  More to come on it in future posts!

Have a conlang?  Why not share some of it!  Do a post on it, and link this one to it, so others can check it out, too.