Pathallea: The Basics of Thoul, part 3.

The Nouns:

The base form of Thoul nouns is always just the word itself ~ ex, thal = water.  This base form is used when the noun is singular and the subject of a sentence.

If the singular noun is the object (ie, is the predicate noun, instead of subject), then add an -a to the noun ~ ex, thala = the water.

The singular possessive form is created by adding -i ~ ex, thali = (the) water’s.

Thoul has a fourth conjugation that English does not, to conjugate the direct object ~ ex, egthal = (to/from/of) the water.

The plural forms go thus:

Subject = -a (thala = waters), object = -ia (thalia = the waters), possessive = -is (thalis = the waters’), dative (direct object) = (egthala = to/from/of the waters).

Water:

thal, thala, thali, egthal; thala, thalia, thalis, egthala.

*There are no real exceptions to this noun paradigm*

The Adjectives/Adverbs:

Adjectives append to the noun they are modifying; the adverbs that modify a single word append similarly; adverbs that modify more than one word stand alone, but are placed beside the words they intend to modify.

All modifiers are given the special affix -ya, which appends to the end of the word being modified (in the case of multi-word modifiers, -ya appends to the modifier itself).

The big dog = kif ligarksya.

“Dog-piling”:  In Thoul, if a word is being modified by more than one adjective/adverb these modifiers “dog-pile” onto the word in a chain-like fashion.

The big, old, hairy dog = kif ligiyoliruckearksya.

Note, in the above example, that only the modifier closest to the “dog-piled” word conjugates like a typical modifier (with -ya coming after the word); the modifiers that come before have their -ya appended directly to themselves in the form of -i-.

In the case of stand-alone modifiers…:

We fight as oneryckis ok eya.

The Verbs:

Thoul verbs have two primary paradigms:  The regular verb paradigm; the copulative verb paradigm.

The Regular Verbs:

Infinitive… To feed = ioune, feeding (participle) = uneos, feeding (gerund) = uneas, fed (participle) = unees.

Active… (I) feed = une, (I) fed = uneo, (I) will feed = unei, (if I) feed = unea, (if I) fed = uneou, (if I) will feed = uneia, not feed = iune, not fed = iuneo, will not feed = iunei, if not feed = iunea, if not fed = iuneou, if will not feed = iuneia.

Passive… Is fed = unee, was fed = uneu, shall be fed = unea, (if) is fed = uneae, (if) was fed = uneue, (if) shall be fed = uneie, is not fed = iunee, was not fed = iuneu, shall not be fed = iunea, (if) is not fed = iuneae, (if) was not fed = iuneue, (if) shall not be fed = iuneie.

Causative… To be fed = ioegune, be fed = egune, shall be fed = agune, should be fed = ogune, not to be fed = iomegune, not be fed = eghune, shall not be fed = aghune, should not be fed = oghune.

The Copulative (to be) Verbs:

To be = nio, being (partic.) = nos, being (gerund.) = nas, been (partic.) = nes, to not be = mio.

(I am) = -io, (I was) = -oi, (I will be) = -ei, (I were (is)) = -ia, (I were (was)) = -oa, (I would be) = –ea, (I am not) = –mio, (I was not) = -moi, (I will not) = -mei, (I were (is) not) = -mia, (I were (was) not) = -moa, (I would not) = -mea.

Pass.Pres. = -uo, Pass.Past. = -ui, Pass.Fut. = -ue, Pass.Pres.Subj. = -ua, Pass.Past.Subj. = -uu, Pass.Fut.Subj. = -uo, Pass.Pres.Neg. = -muo, Pass.Past.Neg. = -mui, Pass.Fut.Neg. = -mue, Pass.Pres.Subj.Neg. = -mua, Pass.Past.Subj.Neg. = -muu, Pass.Fut.Subj.Neg. = -muo.

*Copulative verbs have no causative forms*

**Complete list of copulative verbs in Thoul:  nio = to be, vio = must, lio = shall, klio = can, ionei = will, iovei = to have, iolei = to go, ioklei = to do**

Shall:

Shall = iolio, (I) shall = -lio, (I) should (past) = -loi, (I) shall be = -lei, (I) should (subj.) = -lia, -loa, -lea.  Neg. = -ilio, -iloi, -ilei, -ilia, -iloa, -ilea….

Go:

To go = iolei, going (partic.) = leios, going (gerund.) = leias, gone (partic.) = leies.

Active = lei, leio, leie, leia, leiu, leii, ilei, ileio, ileie, ileia, ileiu, ileii.

Passive = leiuo, leiui, leiue, leiua, leiuu, leiuo, leimuo, leimui, leimue, leimua, leimuu, leimuo.

And that wraps up Part 3!  This ain’t finished yet… stay tuned!

 

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